1. Although(更书面)= though(更口语) =even if (即使，更偏假设性)=even though(虽然，更偏事实性)+句子
Devoted though we are to prosperity and freedom, we cannot shake off the judgmental strand of justice.用倒装
2. No matter how/what/who等= 疑问句+ever
No matter who/Whoever you are, you must keep the law.
Whoever(≠ no matter who)comes will be welcome.
3. …, as long as…
You can do what you want, as long as you like.
4. 名词/表语/动词+ as(though)倒装，。。。，表“纵使”
Object as/though you may, I’ll go.
Small as atoms are, they are made up of still smaller units.
Lover of towns as I am, I realize that I owe a debt to my early country life.
5. Whether…or… 正反两方面，。。。表“不论。。。与否”
Whether you believe it or not, it's true.
You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.
6. Be原型+主语+表语(n, adj)= whether+主语+be动词+表语(n, adj)。不论。一文学性强的虚拟语气，表让步。
Be it historical tradition, faith and culture, or social system, values and level of development, those countries or regions are often different from one another.
7. Despite+n/ving = in spite of 尽管. (不能加句子)
Despite the fact that + 句子(太累赘)
Despite myself, … 情不自禁地…
Her words were so satirical(讽刺的)that I lost my temper in spite of myself.
8. Notwithstanding +sth尽管
But notwithstanding its ancient lineage, it is open to the following challenge.
9. Albeit 虽然即使
You are to be given one method of communication with your rival, albeit indirect communication.
As a result of sth. =As a consequence of sth由于sth, sth是原因。
Owing to sth 介词
By virtue of sth
On account of
Be due to
Owe to sth 动词
Account for=result in 表示导致
Systematic economic forces account for the disastrous loses.
He attributed the opposition to a deep-seated attitude in military.
Sth would explain why …
For this reason，...
For one reason or another, 由于某种原因(不具体指明)
His travel articles are always, for one reason or another, fascinating.
For one thing, 在众多原因中指出其中一个
A lot of people don’t take the time to read contracts. For one thing, they’re often in very tiny print.
On this/that account， 由于这个、那个原因
She was divorced, and on that account alone my mother disliked her.
The reason why+结果/ that+原因
Greed is the reason why they do not deserve the money.
This outcome will result in children starting bullying younger ones.
Excessive greed is therefore a vice that a good society should discourage if it can.
As a result 最终，因此，结果
As a consequence/In consequence,...