大选学英语(4)

2020-09-25 阅读 : 828 次

House of Representatives (The House):众议院

House of Representatives (the house)

众议院是国会两院规模较大的一院,435名议员通常被称作国会议员和国会女议员,他们的任期为两年,参议员的任期则为六年。众议院议长由每届新国会开幕时众议员们经过多数投票产生。众议员代表着他们“选区”的近五十万公民,每个州选区的众议员人数每10年根据联邦人口统计数据确定一次。

The house of Representatives is a large-scale house of two houses of Congress. 435 members are usually called members of Congress and women members of Congress. Their term of office is two years, while the term of office of senators is six years. The speaker of the house of Representatives is elected by a majority vote at the opening of each new Congress. Representatives represent nearly half a million citizens in their "constituencies," and the number of representatives in each state constituency is determined every 10 years based on federal demographic data.

House Majority leader:众议院多数派领袖

House Majority Leader

众议院多数派领袖是众议院多数派政党第二位最有权力的人士。与众议院议长不同,他/她对众议院不负总体责任,主要任务完全是推动所属政党的利益。

The house majority leader is the second most powerful member of the house majority party. Unlike the speaker of the house of Representatives, he / she has no overall responsibility for the house of Representatives, and his / her main task is to promote the interests of his / her party.

House Minority Leader:众议院少数派领袖

House Minority Leader

众议院少数派领袖是在众议院占少数地位政党的领导人,也是少数派政党的政策立场发言人,负责组织党的立法战略。

The minority leader of the house of Representatives is the leader of the party with minority status in the house of Representatives and the spokesman of the minority party's policy position, responsible for organizing the party's legislative strategy.

Landslide victory:压倒性胜利

Landslide victory: overwhelming victory

指在竞选活动中获得绝对多数选票。例如1988年老布什以426张选举人票当选总统。他的民主党对手只得到111张选举人票。

To obtain an absolute majority of votes in a campaign. In 1988, for example, Bush was elected president by 426 electoral votes. His Democratic opponent received only 111 electoral votes.

Independent Registered: 独立选民

Independent registered: independent voters

那些宣布自己不属某个特定党派的选民都可以称为独立派人士。由于多数注册为某党派的选民通常会投某党派候选人的票,大选竞选的重点是赢得独立选民的支持。在全国范围内有近三分之一的选民认为自己是独立派人士,不过,在一些关键州,独立选民的比例比其它一些州更大一些。

Voters who declare that they are not a particular party can be called independents. Since a majority of registered voters usually vote for candidates of a certain party, the focus of the general election campaign is to win the support of independent voters. Nearly a third of voters nationwide think they are independents, but in some key states, the proportion of independent voters is larger than in others.

Joint chiefs of staff :参谋长联席会议

Joint Chiefs of staff

参谋长联席会议的成员是总统和国防部长的主要军事顾问,由美国陆军和空军参谋长、海军作战部部长组成。在涉及到海军陆战队事宜时,海军陆战队司令也是会议成员。参谋长联席会议由主席领导,他被认为是美国军方的总发言人,总统的首席军事顾问。

The members of the Joint Chiefs of staff are the chief military advisers of the president and the Secretary of defense, and they are composed of the chief of staff of the United States Army and air force and the Secretary of the Department of naval operations. When it comes to the Marine Corps, the Marine Corps commander is also a member of the meeting. The Joint Chiefs of staff are headed by the president, who is considered to be the general spokesman of the United States military and the president's chief military adviser.

Mudslinging:揭发隐私

Mudslinging: exposing privacy

对政敌的诬陷和中伤。这个词原意是往别人身上扔泥,在竞选中指对敌对政党的恶意中伤。比如说给对方抹黑的竞选广告,有些甚至是故意误导的攻击性广告。

False accusations and slanders against political enemies. The original meaning of this word is to throw mud on others. In the election campaign, it refers to the malice and slander against the rival parties. For example, campaign advertisements that smear each other, and some even offensive advertisements that deliberately mislead each other.

McCain-Feingold :麦凯恩-法因戈尔德法案

McCain Feingold: the McCain Feingold act

以两位主要发起人麦凯恩参议员和法因戈尔德参议员命名的竞选资金改革法案。制订这一法案的目的是限制地下筹款活动和联邦竞选开支。这一法案禁止了“软钱”,对使候选人受益的议题广告进行了限制。

Campaign funding reform bill named after two main sponsors, Senator McCain and Senator Feingold. The bill was designed to limit underground fundraising and federal campaign spending. The bill bans "soft money" and limits advertising on topics that benefit candidates.

Medicaid:医疗救助项目

Medicaid: Medical Assistance Project

联邦政府出资但由州政府操作的向一些低收入人群提供医疗和保健服务的项目。这一项目由1965年社会保障法附加案所创立,它只适用于符合福利项目条件的特定人群,包括老年人、盲人、残疾人士、单亲家庭、父母是残障或失业人士的孩子。

A program funded by the federal government but operated by the state government to provide medical and health services to some low-income people. This program was created by the social security act of 1965, which only applies to specific groups of people who meet the conditions of the welfare program, including the elderly, the blind, the disabled, single parent families, children whose parents are disabled or unemployed.

Medicare:联邦医疗保险项目

Medicare: federal health insurance program

这项全国范围内的医疗保险项目是根据1965年社会保障法附加案所设立的,适用人群是老年人和残疾人士。它分为医院保险和医疗保险,目的是保障65岁及以上的人士不受高医疗开支的影响。那些患有永久性肾衰和特定残疾的人士也可享受这一保险。

This nationwide medical insurance program was established under the social security act of 1965, which is applicable to the elderly and the disabled. It is divided into hospital insurance and medical insurance to protect people aged 65 and over from high medical expenses. This insurance is also available to those with permanent renal failure and specific disabilities.

National convention :全国党代表大会

National Convention: National Party Congress

全国党代表大会每隔四年举行一次,来自全国各州的党代表参加会议投票选出该党的总统和副总统候选人。全国党代表大会目前主要起到使大多数选民在各州党内初选表达的意愿正式化的作用。通常,获得最多党代表票的人将会接受该党的总统提名。现在的党代表大会也是总统候选人介绍副手和起草政策主张的平台。

The National Party Congress is held every four years, with party representatives from all States participating in the Congress to vote for the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates. At present, the National Party Congress mainly plays a role in formalizing the wishes expressed by the majority of voters in the primary elections of the States. Usually, the person who gets the most delegates will accept the party's presidential nomination. The current Party Congress is also a platform for presidential candidates to introduce deputies and draft policy proposals.

Neck and neck:支持率不分上下

Neck and neck

两位候选人支持率难分高下。这个短语来自赛马比赛,指两匹马齐头并进,很难分清楚哪一匹在前面,也可以解释为并驾齐驱。现在常用于比赛及竞选活动,指竞争者支持率不分上下,很难预测谁会取胜。

The support rate of the two candidates is very high. This phrase comes from horse racing. It means that two horses go hand in hand. It's hard to tell which one is in front, or it can be interpreted as going hand in hand. Now it is often used in competitions and campaigns, which means that the support rate of competitors is not high or low, and it is difficult to predict who will win.

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