作文试题评析

2020-09-22 阅读 : 750 次

2007年全国卷Ⅰ的作文命题,与2006年全国卷Ⅰ一样,采取的是新材料作文的命制思路。所谓“新材料作文”,是一种“以给材料但不给话题,在材料范围内自主确定角度、立意、文体、标题为特征”的命题形式;它“把话题作文中的‘话题’与‘材料’的功用都集中到‘材料’身上。‘材料’与‘题目’(包括标题和话题)相比,‘材料’更贴近生活的原型,让审题不是从‘题目’出发,而是从‘材料’出发,从而使试题更具开放性,更能启动考生的发现能力、判断能力和选择能力”;“考生的作文在材料含意范围之内就符合题意,在材料含意范围之外就偏离题意”。

The composition proposition of the 2007 National Volume I is the same as that of the 2006 National Volume I, which adopts the life system thinking of new material composition. The so-called "new material composition" is a proposition form characterized by "giving materials but not topics, and independently determining angles, ideas, styles and titles within the scope of materials"; it "concentrates the functions of" topics "and" materials "in topic composition on" materials ". "Material" is closer to the prototype of life than "topic" (including title and topic), so that the examination questions are not started from "topic", but from "material", so that the test questions are more open, more able to start the examinee's discovery ability, judgment ability and selection ability ";" the examinee's composition is consistent with the meaning of the questions within the meaning of the materials, and within the meaning of the materials Outside the scope, it deviates from the meaning of the question.

高考作文命题的原则之一是稳中有变。今年全国卷Ⅰ试题之“变”,主要在于材料:由2006年卷Ⅰ的传媒材料、卷Ⅱ的寓言故事材料,变为图画材料。应该说,图画材料是高考作文久违的形式。

One of the principles of composition proposition in college entrance examination is to change steadily. This year's "change" of the national test questions of Volume I mainly lies in the materials: from the media materials of Volume I and the fable materials of Volume II in 2006 to the picture materials. It should be said that the picture material is a long lost form of college entrance examination composition.

图画材料作文,首先要解决的是读懂图画的寓意。面对上面这幅漫画,画面中的所有信息都应认真审视(包括题目“摔了一跤”,包括“出事了吧”的发问和这一问都是对倒地的孩子发出的,包括地上西瓜皮的含意等)。需要注意的是,漫画展示的都是定格了的瞬间的情景;优秀的漫画作品,总是具有丰富的包孕性的。看到题目中的漫画,我们自然会产生联想:在孩子摔跤之前,家庭、学校和社会是什么态度呢?根据“出事了吧”一语,可推断三者都反对孩子“独立行走”,都对孩子灌输过“容易出事”的思想;只有如此,才会有“出事了吧”这一问。由此可见,漫画旨意并不是什么“面对孩子的教育问题,家庭、学校、社会不能互相推卸责任,不能冷嘲热讽”之类;而在于家庭、学校和社会都要积极培养青少年独立自主的意识与能力,让他们大胆地迎接人生风雨的考验。从这个意义上说,本题关注年轻一代的成长环境,贴近社会现实,贴近考生生活实际。因为可“选择一个角度构思作文,自主确定立意”,考生可说的话题非常广泛,可选的角度也很多样。可择要列举:

In the composition of picture materials, the first thing to be solved is to understand the meaning of pictures. In the face of the above cartoon, all the information in the picture should be carefully examined (including the question "fell", including the question "what happened" and the question are all sent to the fallen child, including the meaning of the watermelon skin on the ground). It should be noted that comics show the fixed moment scenes; excellent comics always have rich inclusion. When we see the cartoon in the title, we naturally associate: what is the attitude of family, school and society before children wrestle? According to the phrase "what happened?" it can be inferred that all three oppose children's "independent walking" and instill the thought of "easy to happen" in children. Only in this way can there be the question of "what happened". It can be seen that the purpose of comics is not to "face children's education problems, families, schools and society can't shirk their responsibilities and sneer at each other"; instead, families, schools and society should actively cultivate young people's independent consciousness and ability, so that they can boldly meet the test of life. In this sense, the topic focuses on the growth environment of the young generation, close to the social reality, close to the examinee's life reality. Because you can "choose an angle to conceive your composition and determine your own ideas", candidates can talk about a wide range of topics and choose from many different angles. Here are some examples:

一、从家庭、学校和社会的角度看:人生旅程中遇到坎儿“摔了一跤”是常有的事,作为家长、学校、社会没有必要放不下心、放不开手,而应鼓励孩子跨过这道坎、坚强地站起来。需要提醒的是,如果将“家庭”“学校”“社会”不分主次地一一写来,容易导致笔墨分散;如果只从一个方面切入,可能更利于写具体、说透彻。

1、 From the point of view of family, school and society, it is a common thing to encounter Kaner's "fall" in the journey of life. As a parent, school and society, it is not necessary to let go of his / her heart and hands, but to encourage his / her children to step over this barrier and stand up firmly. It should be reminded that if you write "family", "school" and "society" one by one, regardless of the primary and secondary, it is easy to lead to ink dispersion; if you only cut in from one aspect, it may be more conducive to write specifically and thoroughly.

二、从孩子的角度看:(1)在成长过程中“摔跤”是很正常的,不必手足无措,不必苦苦等待谁来搀扶,而应主动地站起来。只有这样,才能锻炼顽强的意志品质,才能适应当今社会的激烈竞争,才能增强未来克服更大困难的勇气。(2)“摔跤”后不能怨天怨地,责怪“西瓜皮”害人或“道路”不平,而应多找自身原因;从“摔跤”中汲取教训,才能在人生之路上一路走好,顺利抵达目的地。

2、 From the perspective of children: (1) in the process of growing up, "wrestling" is very normal. You don't have to be at a loss. You don't have to wait for someone to help you, but you should take the initiative to stand up. Only in this way can we train our indomitable will, adapt to the fierce competition in today's society, and enhance our courage to overcome greater difficulties in the future. (2) After "wrestling", we should not complain, blame "watermelon skin" for harming people or uneven road, but find more reasons for ourselves; only by learning from "wrestling", can we walk well all the way in life and reach the destination smoothly.

三、从双方的角度看:孩子易“摔跤”,这里面有很多原因——家庭的溺爱、学校的封闭式教育、社会的过度呵护,剥夺了孩子经受锻炼的机会;而有些年轻人,则存在严重的依赖心理。

3、 From the perspective of both sides: children are easy to "wrestle", which has many reasons - the doting of family, the closed education in school, and the excessive care of society, depriving children of the opportunity to undergo exercise; while some young people have serious dependence.

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