大选学英语(2)

2020-06-14 阅读 : 592 次

Buckley vs Valeo:跋克雷对韦里欧案件

Buckley vs Valeo: Buckley vs. Verio

最高法院1976年在“跋克雷对韦里欧案件”中,支持了对捐款的限制。对政治捐款加以适当限制是一种保障公民享有平等的基本政治权利的努力,防止了富人作为新的特权者控制政治程序,因而也是维护民主的努力。如《联选法》规定,个人对总统候选人的捐款上限是1000美元。这样候选人再也不能像以前那样仅仅依靠一小撮富人来支持自己的选举。他们不得不从广大选民那里获取支持。

In 1976, the Supreme Court upheld the restrictions on donations in the Bacre case against Verio. Proper restriction of political donation is an effort to protect citizens' equal basic political rights, to prevent the rich from controlling political procedures as new privileged persons, and therefore to safeguard democracy. As stipulated in the joint election act, the maximum amount of individual contributions to presidential candidates is $1000. In this way, candidates can no longer rely on a small group of rich people to support their own elections as before. They have to get support from the general electorate.

Coattails:燕尾提举力

Coattails: Yanwei lifting force

从旧时绅士长礼服后下摆“燕尾”一词引伸而来。在美国政治中,指一位在职民选官员或竞选公职的候选人利用自己的声望给本党其他候选人增加胜选机会的能力——好似让别人受其燕尾之提举,顺势走向胜利。

From the old gentleman's long dress with the word "swallow tail" at the bottom. In American politics, the ability of a serving elected official or candidate for office to use his or her popularity to increase the chances of winning the election for the other candidates of his or her own party - as if to let others accept his or her swallow tail's recommendation and move to victory.

Convention bounce:会后弹升

Convention bounce: bounce after meeting

在共和党或民主党全国代表大会完成总统候选人提名的几天内,候选人在民意调查中声望上升的现象。

The rise in the popularity of candidates in public opinion polls within days of the Republican or Democratic National Convention's completion of the presidential nomination.

Capitol:国会大厦

Capitol: Capitol

是美国国会的办公大楼,坐落于美国首都华盛顿市中心一处海拔83英尺高的高地上,此地后被称为“国会山”。1793年,美国首任总统乔治?华盛顿亲自为它奠基,采用的是国会大厦设计竞赛的第一名获得者、著名设计师威廉?桑顿的设计蓝图,国会大厦于1800年落成并投入使用。国会大厦外墙全部使用白色大理石,通体洁白,建筑师力图使它给人一种神圣纯洁的感受。整幢国会大厦是一座三层平顶建筑,其中央是一座高高耸立的圆顶,也分三层。圆顶上还有一个小圆塔,塔顶矗立着19英尺(约5。8米)高的自由女神铜像。她头顶羽冠,右手持剑,左手扶盾,永远眺望东方太阳升起的地方。

It is the office building of the U.S. Congress. It is located on an 83 foot high ground in the center of Washington, D.C., which is later known as "Capitol Hill". In 1793, George Washington, the first president of the United States, laid the foundation for it by himself, adopting the blueprint of William Thornton, the first winner of the Capitol design competition and a famous designer. The Capitol was completed and put into use in 1800. The exterior wall of the Capitol building is made of white marble. The whole body is white. The architect tries to make it feel holy and pure. The whole Capitol building is a three story flat roof building with a high dome in the center, which is also divided into three floors. There is also a small round tower on the dome, which stands 19 feet (about 5 feet). 8 meters) high statue of liberty. She has a crown on her head, a sword in her right hand and a shield in her left hand. She will always look at the place where the east sun rises.

Caucus:预备会议

Caucus: preparatory meeting

特指以促进政治上或组织上的变化为目的的聚会。在美国选举政治中,这个词专指在提名总统候选人的过程中,党的地方活动人士举行的会议。所谓“分层”预选会议制,是指政党地方活动人士在地方选区会议上选出参加高一级行政区会议的代表,这一级代表再选出参加州一级会议的代表,最后由州级会议代表选出参加本党全国提名代表大会的代表。预选会议制旨在通过选出支持某一候选人的代表来表明政党在各州内的党员所希望推举的本党总统候选人。这种做法使决定总统候选人的程序始于基层,因此也使总统提名程序民主化。

A gathering especially for the purpose of promoting political or organizational change. In American election politics, the term refers to a meeting of local party activists during the nomination of presidential candidates. The so-called "hierarchical" pre election system refers to the system in which local activists of political parties elect representatives to participate in the meetings of the higher administrative regions at the local constituency meetings, which then elect representatives to participate in the meetings of the state level, and finally the representatives of the state level meetings elect representatives to participate in the national nomination Congress of the party. The purpose of the caucus system is to show the party's presidential candidates that the party members in the states want to recommend by selecting representatives who support a certain candidate. This practice starts the process of determining presidential candidates at the grass-roots level and therefore democratizes the presidential nomination process.

Congress:国会

Congress: Congress

美国最高立法机关,由参议院和众议院组成。参议员由各州选民直接选出,每州 2 名,实行各州代表权平等原则。美国国会现有参议员100名。当选参议员必须年满30岁,作为美国公民已满9年,当选时为选出州的居民 。参议员任期6年,每2年改选1/3 ,连选得连任没。众议员数按各州人口比例分配,由直接选举产生,每州至少1名,人数固定为435名,必须年满25岁,作为美国公民已满7年,当选时为选出州的居民。众议员任期2年,连选得连任。两院议员长期连任现象极为普遍。议员不得兼任其他政府职务。

The highest legislative body of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the house of Representatives. Senators are directly elected by state voters, with two senators in each state, and the principle of equal representation of each state is implemented. There are now 100 senators in the United States Congress. Elected senators must be at least 30 years old, have been citizens of the United States for nine years, and be residents of the elected state when elected. The term of office of the senator is six years, and one third of the senators are re elected every two years. The number of Representatives shall be distributed in proportion to the population of each state, and shall be directly elected. There shall be at least one representative in each state, with a fixed number of 435 members, who must be at least 25 years old. They have been citizens of the United States for seven years, and they shall be residents of the elected state at the time of election. The term of office of the representative is two years, and he can be re elected. Long term re-election of members of both houses of Parliament is very common. A member shall not hold any other government office concurrently.

Commander in chief:三军统帅

Commander in chief

美国宪法赋予总统作为三军统帅的权利。如1962年古巴导弹危机,采取何种方案,就必须由肯尼迪拍板。1974年,国会通过了战争权力法案,制约了总统宣战的权力。

The constitution of the United States gives the president the right to act as commander in chief of the armed forces. For example, in 1962, Cuba's missile crisis, Kennedy had to decide what kind of plan to take. In 1974, Congress passed the war power act, which restricted the president's power to declare war.

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