中英语作文四大常见症状分析

2020-06-12 阅读 : 824 次

作文是英语知识水平的综合素质体现,它要求同学们既要有扎实的语言基本功,又要具备一定的审题能力、想象能力、表达能力、评价能力及书法排版能力。因为基本功不扎实,多数同学在作文时总会出现这样或者那样的问题,例如,文体不符、词汇误用、句子单一等,造成作文的得分较低,影响了总的英语成绩。因此,作文能力不强一直是同学们比较普遍的问题。其实归结起来,作文“缺钙”一共有四类症状,深入地剖析这些症状,就能找到作文偏科的根本原因,同时写作时适当地套用一些模板,给写作能力“缺钙”的同学好好进补。

Composition is the comprehensive quality of English knowledge. It requires students to have not only solid basic language skills, but also certain examination ability, imagination ability, expression ability, evaluation ability and calligraphy typesetting ability. Because the basic skills are not solid, most students always have some problems in their composition, for example, inconsistent style, misuse of vocabulary, single sentence, etc., which results in low scores in composition and affects the overall English scores. Therefore, the ability of composition is not strong has been a common problem for students. In fact, there are four kinds of symptoms in the composition "calcium deficiency". If we analyze these symptoms thoroughly, we can find the root cause of the partial composition. At the same time, we can apply some templates properly to supplement the students who are "calcium deficient" in writing ability.

症状一文体格式混乱

Symptom style disorder

【表现】 读了作文要求之后,提笔就写——明明要求写一封表达建议的书信,结果写成了议论文;或者明明要求写说明文,偏偏写成了记叙文;或者总算文体没有弄错,结果写通知误用日记的格式,写书信又误用通知的格式。

[performance] after reading the requirements of composition, write when writing - clearly ask for a letter to express suggestions, and the result is written as argumentative paper; or clearly ask for clear text, but it is written as narrative; or the final style is not wrong, and the result is that the notice is written in the format of diary, and the letter is written in the format of notice.

【症结】 平时缺乏作文文体方面的针对性训练,对英语作文的几种常用文体及其相应的写作格式不熟悉,拿到写作材料习惯性地对写作要求一扫而过,提笔就写自己最熟悉的格式。

[crux] there is a lack of targeted training in writing style at ordinary times. I am not familiar with several commonly used English writing styles and their corresponding writing formats. When I get the writing materials, I will habitually sweep through the writing requirements and write the most familiar format.

【突破之道】明确文体和对应格式

[the way of breakthrough] clear style and corresponding format

常用文体有记叙文、说明文、议论文还有应用文等。近几年的高考书面表达多以应用文为主,提供的形式多以图画、提纲、表格出现,书写的格式大都是书信、通知。所以,同学们应该掌握书信的称呼、开头、正文、结尾、签名等方面,另外,口头通知和书面通知的不同要清楚。总之,同学们应根据写作提示分析材料,明确写作文体和其相应的格式。

The common styles are narrative, expository, argumentative and practical. In recent years, the written expression of college entrance examination is mainly applied, and the forms provided are mostly pictures, outlines and forms. The written forms are mostly letters and notices. Therefore, students should master the address, beginning, text, end, signature and other aspects of the letter. In addition, the difference between oral notice and written notice should be clear. In a word, students should analyze the materials according to the writing tips, and make clear the writing style and its corresponding format.

症状二 时态人称混乱

Symptom two tense person confusion

【表现】 作文时,时态和人称运用混乱——时态方面,要么整篇文章都是一种时态(以一般现在时、一般过去时居多),要么就是一段甚至一句话中出现三种以上的时态;人称方面,要么文章开头是第一人称,写到文中甚至文末就成了第二、第三人称,要么前面是单数人称,写着写着就变成复数人称。

[performance] in composition, tense and person use are confused - in terms of tense, either the whole article is a kind of tense (most of which are general present tense and general past tense), or there are more than three kinds of tenses in a paragraph or even a sentence; In terms of person, either the first person at the beginning of the article, or the second or third person at the end of the article, or the singular person at the front, or the plural person when it is written.

【症结】 英语基础知识不牢固,对英语中时态和人称所代表的含义及其运用掌握不足,因此无法根据文体来选择正确的时态和人称而滥用或者混用。

[crux] the basic knowledge of English is not solid, and the meaning and application of tense and person in English are not well grasped, so it is impossible to choose the correct tense and person according to the style and abuse or mix them.

【突破之道】 明确时态和人称

[the way of breakthrough] clear tense and person

同学们要根据选好的文体和写作内容确定时态和人称。一般来说,记人叙事多用一般过去时;发布通知多用一般将来时和祈使句式;发表议论大多用带有情态动词的一般现在时;人物介绍、现状说明常用一般现在时和现在完成时。定准时态后接下来一定要知道各时态的构成及用法要点,但要记住,写作时时态并不唯一,要依据表达内容而选定正确的时态。人称方面则要注意前后统一,避免出现前后人称属性或者单复数不一致的情况。

Students should determine the tense and person according to the selected style and writing content. Generally speaking, the general past tense is often used to record people's narratives; the general future tense and imperative sentence patterns are often used to issue notices; the general present tense with modal verbs is mostly used to issue comments; the general present tense and present perfect tense are commonly used in character introduction and current situation explanation. After the tense is fixed, we must know the composition and main points of usage of each tense, but we should remember that the tense is not unique in writing, and we should choose the right tense according to the content of expression. In the aspect of person, we should pay attention to the unity of the former and the latter, so as to avoid the inconsistency between the former and the latter.

症状三 词汇运用混乱

Symptom three vocabulary confusion

【表现】 经常出现乱用词语的现象,同时使用一些较难的、较长的、用法不熟悉的单词,或者明明用一些简单的词汇就能够很清楚地表达意思,偏偏要选择一些难度较大的、不常用的表达方式。

[expression] there is often a phenomenon of misuse of words. At the same time, some difficult, long and unfamiliar words can be used, or some simple words can clearly express the meaning, but it is necessary to choose some difficult and uncommon expressions.

【症结】 写作时对文章的脉络把握不足就匆匆下笔,对其中所需的词汇和常用表达方式理解记忆不牢固。平时练习时,习惯性地忽略一些形式简单但用途较广泛的基本词汇和表达方式,喜欢选择复杂的词汇和表达方式。

[crux] when writing, if you don't grasp the context of the article, you can write in a hurry, and you can't understand and remember the words and common expressions you need. In normal practice, we habitually ignore some basic words and expressions which are simple in form but widely used, and like to choose complex words and expressions.

【突破之道】确定所需主要词汇和所用表达结构

[breakthrough] determine the main vocabulary and expression structure

应该根据文章体裁和内容逐个确定写作要点。对于图画和图表可在草稿纸上用中文列出并理清要点,然后选词造句,要注意语言的准确得当,力求用最简洁的话表达准确的意思。同时,平时写作要多进行发散思维,例如,是用verysorry还是terriblysorry,是surprised还astonished。同学们应学会尽可能避免使用较高级的语法结构和词汇,如非谓语动词、复合句等,以免造成过失性失分。

The main points of writing should be determined one by one according to the style and content of the article. For pictures and charts, you can list and sort out the main points in Chinese on the draft paper, then choose words and sentences, pay attention to the accuracy and appropriateness of the language, and strive to express the accurate meaning in the simplest words. At the same time, in normal writing, divergent thinking should be carried out more often, for example, whether to use veriysory or terriblysory, whether to use surprised or astonised. Students should learn to avoid using advanced grammatical structures and vocabulary as much as possible, such as non predicate verbs and compound sentences, so as not to cause negligent loss of points.

症状四语序句序混乱

Disorder of four word order of symptoms

【表现】 作文的语序、句序混乱,通常这里写一点,跳过去又另起一点,这样造成要么文章洋洋洒洒一大篇却全是废话,没有中心和重点,什么都没有表达清楚;要么通篇没有适当的过渡词、句,整篇文章一“逗”到底,密密麻麻让人找不着北。

[performance] the word order and sentence order of a composition are disordered. Usually, one point is written here, and another point is skipped. As a result, either the article is full of nonsense, without center and focus, and nothing is expressed clearly; or the whole article is full of inappropriate transitional words and sentences, and the whole article "teases" to the end, which makes people unable to find the north.

【症结】 平时练习时不注意表达的连贯性,想到哪里就写到哪里,写作之前没有列提纲的习惯,不去深入思索怎样表达才能达到最好的效果,从而造成整篇文章逻辑思维混乱,层次不清晰。

[crux] in normal practice, we don't pay attention to the consistency of expression, write where we want to, and don't have the habit of outlining before writing, and don't think deeply about how to express to achieve the best effect, thus causing the logical thinking confusion and unclear level of the whole article.

【突破之道】 整理成篇 行文连贯

[the way to break through] make a coherent passage

同学们应该根据写作内容列好简要提纲,分清文章的层次,确定详略,写好的单句要重新排列组合起来,使之前后连贯成一篇完整的文章。同时选用恰当的关联词或句子使文章过渡自然,行文流畅。另外,该分段时要分段,这样文章才能中心突出,一目了然,整篇作文才能如行云流水般整齐划一。

Students should make a brief outline according to the writing content, distinguish the levels of the article, determine the details, and rearrange the single sentences to make them coherent into a complete article. At the same time, choose the appropriate Related words or sentences to make the passage natural and fluent. In addition, this section should be divided so that the article can be central and clear at a glance, and the whole composition can be as neat and uniform as flowing clouds.

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